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Types of Surgeons (Surgery) – Surgical Specialties

The American College of Surgeons recognizes 14 surgical specialties , each of which has multiple subspecialties, giving you a wide range of alternatives. Most surgical specializations focus on a specific bodily area, such as the heart (cardiac surgeon) or the arteries and veins (vascular surgeon) (vascular surgeon).

Other specialties focus on age (paediatric surgeon) or gender (gender specialist) (gynecology and obstetrics). To become a surgeon, regardless of specialty, it requires a lot of time and effort.

What a general surgeon does?

Doctors who specialize in surgical operations are known as general surgeons. Any technique that modifies body tissues in order to detect or treat a medical ailment is referred to as surgery. An anesthesiologist, nurses, and surgical technicians are all members of a surgical team that comprises a general surgeon. (WebMD trusted 01 )

What subspecialties are in general surgery?

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the  esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix, and bile ducts, as well as the thyroid gland.

Moreover, they also treat skin, breast, soft tissue, trauma, peripheral artery disease , and hernias, as well as performing endoscopic procedures including gastroscopy and colonoscopy.

Common Types of General Surgery Procedures

General surgeons can specialize in one or more of the specialties listed below:

  1. Trauma surgery.
  2. Laparoscopic surgery.
  3. Colorectal surgery.
  4. Breast surgery.
  5. Vascular surgery.
  6. Endocrine surgery.
  7. Transplant surgery.
  8. Surgical oncology.
  9. Cardiothoracic surgery
  10. Pediatric surgery

Types of surgeons and their functions:

Doctors must study for an additional year after medical school to become surgeons. Surgical specialties have its own set of regulations, boards, and associations. All of them start with a four-year medical (or dental) school, such as Ross University School of Medicine (RUSM), and then move on to residencies and specialty training. You might be wondering what kinds of surgeons are available.

What are the many types of surgeons? The American College of Surgeons recognizes 14 different types of surgeons:

An Overview of Types Surgical Specialties

  1. Cardiothoracic surgery
  2. Colon and rectal surgery 
  3. General surgery 
  4. Gynecology and obstetrics 
  5. Gynecologic oncology
  6. Neurological surgery
  7. Ophthalmic surgery
  8. Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  9. Orthopedic surgery
  10. Otorhinolaryngology
  11. Pediatric surgery
  12. maxillofacial  and Plastic surgery
  13. Urology
  14. Vascular surgery


Reason for the operation:

A closer look at the types of surgeons you could assist:

  • Diagnostic procedure – it is performed to find out the origin and cause of the injury/disease, e.g. breast biopsy, knee arthroscopy, reconnaissance laparoscopy
  •  Therapeutic treatment – a form of therapy, cures by removing the cause of the disease, e.g. mastectomy, hysterectomy, 
  •  Healing treatment – improves patient’s functioning e.g. knee prosthesis, finger reimplantation
  • Palliative procedure – it aims to reduce symptoms and slow down the disease process, but it is not curative, e.g. tumor excision, colostomy
  • Cosmetic procedure – carried out to change or improve the patient’s appearance, e.g. scar revision, liposuction, skin transplantation

The urgency of the operation Types of Surgeons:

  • elective procedure – the patient knew about him and could prepare for it, an urgent problem that does not threaten life, e.g. cataract removal, hip replacement,
  • urgent procedure – requires prompt intervention, the patient will be in a life-threatening condition if the procedure is delayed, e.g. appendicitis, stones in the urinary tract, intestinal obstruction
  • emergency/emergency – requires immediate intervention due to life-threatening consequences, e.g. gunshot, stab wound , heavy bleeding

Degree of intra-operative complications Types of Surgeons:

  •  low risk surgery – a procedure without significant risk, often performed under regional/local anesthesia e.g. skin suturing.
  • high risk surgery – a procedure during which serious health complications may occur, usually longer and more complicated, e.g. mitral valve replacement, lymph node excision

The extent of the operation

  • simple procedure – applies only to tissues that are explicitly affected by the lesion, e.g. partial mastectomy
  • radical – surgery extended to tissues in which the disease process is not yet visible, but leaving them may cause future disease, e.g. radical mastectomy

Degree of contamination of the operating Types of Surgeons

  •  clean – there is no contact with inflammatory changes or the room cord light opens. respiratory, urinary, female genital drugs, e.g. orthopedic, ophthalmic, neurosurgery
  • clean, contaminated – opening of the cable room light steering. respiratory, urinary tract without major infection , e.g. gynecological operations, appendicitis
  • contaminated – significant contamination with gastrointestinal content, contact with acute non-inflammatory lesions, e.g. open fresh traumatic wounds, open fracture,
  • dirty – contact with purulent inflammatory lesions, e.g. room perforation, old traumatic wounds

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Written by Dr. Ozair (CEO of SignSymptom.com) as physician writers are physicians who write creatively in fields outside their practice of medicine.

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